Archive, b >> bad sector
A bad sector is a sector on a computer's disk drive or flash memory that is either inaccessible or unwriteable due to permanent damage, such as physical damage to the disk surface or failed flash memory transistors. Bad sectors are usually detected by a disk utility software such as CHKDSK or SCANDISK on Microsoft systems, or badblocks on Unix-like systems. When found, these programs may mark the sectors unusable (most file systems contain provisions for bad-sector marks) and the operating system skips them in the future. If any of the files uses a sector which is marked as 'bad' by a disk utility then the bad sector of the file is remapped to a free sector and any unreadable data is lost. To avoid file corruption data recovery methods should be performed first if bad sectors are found (before being marked) by OS at file system level. When a sector is found to be bad or unstable by the firmware of a disk controller, the disk controller remaps the logical sector to a different physical...